The Problem #
Long term maintenance of a web application, will, at some point, require changes. Code grows with the functionality it serves, and an increase in functionality is inevitable.
It is impossible to foresee what sort of changes are required, but there are changes that are common and are commonly expensive:
changing the back-end datastore of one or more pieces of data
adding additional interfaces for a consumer to request or modify data
It is possible to prevent some of these changes with some foresight, but it is unlikely to prevent all of them. As such, we can try to encapsulate and limit the impact of these changes on other code bases.
Thus, every time I start on a new project, I practice CID: (Consumer-Internal-Datasource)
CID Explained #
CID is an acronym for the three layers of abstraction that should be built out from the beginning of an application. The layers are described as:
The consumer level: the interface that your consumers interact with
The internal level: the interface that application developers interact with most of the time
The datasource level: the interface that handles communication with the database and other APIs
Let’s go into each of these in detail.
Consumer: the user facing side #
The client level handles translating and verifying the client format, to something that makes more sense internally. In the beginning, this level could be razor thin, as the client format probably matches the internal format completely. However, other responsibilities that might occur at this layer are:
converting to whatever format the consumer desires, such a json
speaking whatever transport protocol is desired, such as HTTP or a Kafka stream
As the application grows, the internal format might change, or a new API version may need to be introduced, with it’s own schema. At that point, it makes sense to split the client schema and the internal schema, so ending up with something like:
<span class="k">class</span> <span class="nc">PetV1</span><span class="p">():</span> <span class="n">to_internal</span><span class="p">()</span> <span class="c1"># converts Pet to the internal representation.</span> <span class="n">from_internal</span><span class="p">()</span> <span class="c1"># in case you need to return pet objects back as V1</span> <span class="k">class</span> <span class="nc">PetV2</span><span class="p">():</span> <span class="n">to_internal</span><span class="p">()</span> <span class="c1"># converts Pet to the internal representation.</span> <span class="n">from_internal</span><span class="p">()</span> <span class="c1"># in case you need to return pet objects back as V2</span> <span class="k">class</span> <span class="nc">PetInt</span><span class="p">():</span> <span class="c1"># the internal representation, used within the internal level.</span>
Datastore: translates internal to datastore #
Some of the worst refactorings I’ve encountered are the ones involving switching datastores. It’s a linear problem: as the database interactions increase, so do the lines of code that are needed to perform that interaction, and each line must be modified in switching or alternating the way datastores are called.
It’s also difficult to get a read on where the most expensive queries lie. When your application has free form queries all over the code, it requires someone to look at each call and interpret the cost, as ensure performance is acceptable for the new source.
If any layer should be abstracted, it’s the datastore. Abstracting the datastore in a client object makes multiple refactors simpler:
adding an index and modifying queries to hit that index
putting the database behind another web service
adding timeouts and circuit breakers
Internal: the functional developer side #
The client and datastore layers abstract away any refactoring that only affects the way the user interacts with the application, or the way data is stored. That leaves the final layer to focus on just the behavior.
The internal layer stitches together client and datastore, and performs whatever other transformations or logic needs to be performed. By abstracting out any modification to the schema that had to be done on the client or datastore (including keeping multiple representation for the API), you’re afforded a layer that deals exclusively with application behavior.
An Example of a CID application #
A theoretical organization for a CID application is:
root: consumers: - HTTPPetV1 - HTTPPetV2 - SQSPetV1 internal: # only a single internal representation is needed. - Pet datasource: # showcasing a migration from Postgres to MongoDB - PetPostgres - PetMongoDB
Example Where CID helps #
So I’ve spent a long time discussing the layers and their responsibilities. If we go through all of this trouble, where does this actually help?
Adding a new API version #
add a new API schema
convert to internal representation
Modifying the underlying database #
- modify the datasource client.
Complex Internal Representations #
If you need to keep some details in a Postgres database, and store other values within memcache for common queries, this can be encapsulated in the datasource layer.
All too often the internal representations attempt to detail with this type of complexity, which makes it much harder to understand the application code.
Maintaining Multiple API versions #
Without clearly separating how an object is structured internally from how consumers consume it, the details of the consumer leaks into the internal representation.
For example, attempting to support two API version, someone writes some branched code to get the data they want. this pattern continues for multiple parts of the code dealing with that data, until it becomes hard to get a complete understanding of what in V1 is consumed, and what in V2 is consumed.
Final Thoughts #
David Wheeler is quoted for saying:
All problems in computer science can be solved by another level of indirection.
Indirection is handy because it encapsulates: you do not need a complete understanding of the implementation to move forward.
At the same time, too much indirection causes the inability to understand the complete effect of a change.
Balance is key, and using CID helps guide indirection where it could help the most.